Hi Abbie, thanks for your question. Yes, the discussions that Members of the House of Representatives and Senators have in the chambers are called debates. Many Parliamentary debates are about ideas for laws (bills). Debates in the House of Representatives and Senate are necessary stages of passing a bill. More information on the stages of making a law can be found here.
There are particular times for debates on bills. Each debate has a list of speakers and time limits for each speech. Members and Senators only get one opportunity to make a speech at each stage of a bill.